ASTM F104 Gaskets

Accu-Shape Die Cutting is capable of producing nonmetallic gaskets that adhere to ASTM F104 standards. Our variety of steel rule die cut presses operate with speed and precision to produce the highest quality gaskets available. By utilizing our many steel rule presses, Accu-Shape can produce volumes ranging from small runs to large-scale production runs. In addition to die cut presses, Accu-Shape can also apply laminate and pressure sensitive adhesive to gaskets.

1.    Scope

1.1   This classification system provides a means for specifying or describing pertinent properties of commercial nonmetallic gasket materials. Materials composed of asbestos, cork, cellulose, and other organic or inorganic materials in combination with various binders or impregnants are included. Materials normally classified as rubber compounds are not included, since they are covered in Classification D2000. Gasket coatings are not covered, since details thereof are intended to be given on engineering drawings or in separate specifications. Facing materials for laminate composite gasket materials (LCGM) are included in Classification System F104. Assembled LCGMs are covered in Classification  F868.

1.2 Since all of the properties that contribute to gasket performance are not included, use of the classification system as a basis for selecting materials is limited.

1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

2. Referenced Documents

2.1 ASTM Standards:

C561 Test Method for Ash in a Graphite  Sample

D1170 Specification for Nonmetallic Gasket Materials for General Automotive and Aeronautical Purposes (With- drawn 1968)

D2000 Classification System for Rubber Products in Auto- motive Applications

D5964 Practice for Rubber IRM 901, IRM 902, and IRM 903 Replacement Oils for ASTM No. 1, ASTM No. 2, and ASTM No. 3 Oils

E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves

F36 Test Method for Compressibility and Recovery of Gas- ket Materials

F37 Test Methods for Sealability of Gasket  Materials

F38 Test Methods for Creep Relaxation of a Gasket Material

F146 Test Methods for Fluid Resistance of Gasket Materials

F147 Test  Method  for  Flexibility  of  Non-Metallic Gasket Materials

F148 Test Method for Binder Durability of Cork Composition Gasket Materials

F152 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Nonmetallic Gasket Materials

F433 Practice for Evaluating Thermal Conductivity of Gasket Materials

F607 Test Method for Adhesion of Gasket Materials to Metal Surfaces

F868 Classification for Laminated Composite Gasket Materials

F1315 Test Method for Density of a Sheet Gasket Material

G21 Practice for Determining Resistance of Synthetic Polymeric Materials to Fungi

3. Significance and Use

3.1 This classification system is intended to encourage uniformity in reporting properties; to provide a common language for communications between suppliers and consumers; to guide engineers and designers in the test methods commonly used for commercially available materials; and to be versatile enough to cover new materials and test methods as they are introduced

3.2 This system is based on the principle that nonmetallic gasket materials can be described in terms of specific physical and mechanical properties. This enables the user, or producer, to characterize a nonmetallic gasket based on properties that are important for the  application.

4.    Basis of Classification

4.1   To permit “line call-out” of a material’s physical and mechanical properties, this classification system establishes letter and number symbols for various performance levels of each property or characteristic.

4.2 Each “line call out” shall include:

  • ASTM F104
  • In parentheses, the letter “F” followed by 6 numerals describing the required basic characteristics per 8.1.
  • Within the same parentheses, a dash “-” shall follow the basic characteristics, along with any supplemental characteristics per 8.2.

All six (6) numeric fields defining the basic characteristics must be occupied. If a particular characteristic is not required, a “0” must be used as a placeholder to indicate    such.

4.3 The six (6) numeric fields used in the basic character- istics define (in order):

  1. Principal reinforcement
  2. Manufacturing method
  3. Compressibility
  4. Thickness increase in IRM 903 oil
  5. Weight increase in IRM 903 oil
  6. Weight increase in water

Example 1:

ASTM F104 (F725400) describes a gasket material with only basic characteristics defined as follows: first numeral – 7 (non-asbestos fiber, tested as type 1); second numeral – 2 (beater process); third numeral – 5 (20 to 30 % compressibility per Test Method F36); forth numeral – 4 (15 to 30 % thickness increase after immersion in IRM 903 Oil per Test Methods F146); fifth numeral – 0 (no Requirement for weight increase in IRM 903 oil per Test Methods F146); sixth numeral – 0  (no

4.4 Supplemental characteristics may be added to line call out based on the needs of the application. The alpha numerics used to specify various supplemental characteristics are defined in 8.2.

Example 2:

ASTM F104 (F725400-B5E66M4) describes a gasket material with the same basic characteristics defined by Example 1, along with supplemental characteristics defined as follows: B5 (30 % creep relaxation per Test Methods F38); E66 (60 % weight change, and 15 to 35 % thickness change in ASTM Fuel B per Test Methods F146); M4 (no less than 6.895 MPa tensile strength per Test Methods  F152).

4.5 The numeral “9” is used when the description of any characteristic (or test related thereto) is specified by some supplement to this classification system, such as notes on engineering drawings. This notation may be used to modify a test characteristic to a value not available in the tables; define gasket binder type; note use and type of a surface release agent; or note use and type of an adhesive  system.

Example 3:

Using the same example and adding an L suffix requirement, ASTM F104 (F725400-B5E66M4L169), since the 9 needs to be defined on the engineering drawing, it is recommended to define the “As Specified” requirement immediately after the F104 line call out. In this case, for L169, the 1 defines the primary fiber as Aramid, the 6 indicates the secondary fiber is cellulose both per 8.2, and the 9 is defined immediately after the line call out as shown  here:

ASTM F104 (F725400-B5E66M4L169); L169 (ACM Binder)

NOTE 1—While this “cell-type” format provides the means for close characterization and specification of each property and combinations of properties for a broad range of materials, it is subject to possible misapplications, since impossible property combinations can be coded if the user is not familiar with available commercial materials. Appendix X1 indicates properties, characteristics, and test methods that are normally considered applicable to each type of  material.

5. Thickness Requirements

5.1 Thickness tolerance guidelines for materials identified by this classification system are provided in 4. Use of these guidelines as a requirement must be based on an agreement between part/material provider and end user.

5.2 Unless specified by an ASTM method, default test thickness shall be:

All materials except 0.8 mm (0.030 in.)
Type 2 and Type 5 Class 1
Type 2 materials 1.5 to 6.4 mm (0.060 to 0.25 in.)
Type 5, Class 1 materials 0.4 mm (0.015 in.)

6. Sampling
6.1 Specimens shall be selected from finished gaskets or sheets of suitable size, whichever is the more practicable. If sheets are used, they shall, where applicable, be cut squarely with the grain of the stock, and the grain direction shall be noted by an arrow. If finished gaskets are used, the dimensions of sample and any variations from method must be reported.

6.2 Sufficient specimens shall be selected to provide a minimum of three determinations for each test specified. The average of the determinations shall be considered as the result.

7. Conditioning

7.1 Prior to all applicable tests, specimens shall be conditioned as follows:

Type Class Conditioning
1 All Except 3 Oven conditioned at 100°C (212°F) for 1 h. Cool to 21 to 30°C (70 to 85°F) in a desiccator containing anhydrous calcium chloride.
1 3 Oven condition at 100 ± 2°C (212 ± 3.6°F) for 4 h. Cool to 21 to 30°C (70 to 85°F) in a desiccator containing anhydrous calcium chloride.
2 All Controlled humidity room or closed chamber at 21 to 30°C (70 to 85°F) and 50 to 55 % relative humidity for at least 46 h.
0, 3, or 9 All Preconditioned at 21 to 30°C (70 to 85°F) for 4 h in a closed chamber containing anhydrous calcium chloride as a desiccant. The air in the chamber shall be circulated by gentle mechanical agitation. Specimens shall then be transferred immediately to a controlled-humidity room or closed chamber with gentle mechanical circulation of the air and conditioned at 21 to 30°C (70 to 85°F) and 50 to 55 % relative humidity for at least 20 h. If a mechanical means of maintaining 50 to 55 % relative humidity is not available, a tray containing a saturated solution of reagent grade magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)•6H2O, shall be placed in the chamber to provide the required relative humidity.
4 All No conditioning required.
4, 7 or 8 All Oven conditioned at 100°C (212°F) for 1 h. Cool to 21 to 30°C (70 to 85°F) in a desiccator containing anhydrous calcium chloride.

8. Classification Tables

8.1 Table 1 presents the basic 6 numeric fields and the available physical and mechanical characteristic and the definition of each placeholder in that  field.

8.2 Table 2 presents the available supplementary physical and mechanical characteristics and the defined

8.3 Table 3 contains guideline material thickness The tolerances in this table may not be applicable to all types of gasket materials. These values should not be used as part tolerances unless previously agreed on between producer and end user.

8.4 Thickness:

8.4.1 Measure the specimens with a device actuated by a dead-weight load. The device shall be capable of reading in 0.02-mm (0.001-in.) or smaller units, and readings shall be estimated to the nearest 0.002 mm (0.0001 in.). The presser foot shall be 40 6 0.13 mm (0.252 6 0.005 in.) in diameter. The anvil shall have a diameter not less than that of the presser foot. The pressure on the sample shall be as specified in Table 4.

8.4.2 Take the reading by lowering the presser foot gently until it is in contact with the specimen. Take a sufficient number of readings, depending on the size of the specimen, to provide a reliable average value.

9. Keywords

9.1 classification; description; gasket; line call-out; nonme- tallic gasket; physical and mechanical properties; specification; testing